Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Medicolegal aspects of doping in football
  1. T Graf-Baumann
  1. Correspondence to:
 Professor T Graf-Baumann
 Chairman FIFA Doping Control Sub-Committee, Administration and Scientific Director, German Society for the Study of Pain, Administration and Scientific Director, German Society for Musculo-Sceletal Medicine, Schillerst. 14, 79331 Teningen, Germany; graf-baumann{at}


This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA’s approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α-reductase inhibitors for male pattern baldness in the face of the classification of finasteride as a forbidden masking agent; and lastly, the increasing use of recreational drugs and its social and legal implications in positive cases.

  • medical-legal aspects
  • doping
  • prohibited substances
  • individual case management

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Competing interests: none declared