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Sports-related acute and chronic avulsion injuries in children and adolescents with special emphasis on tennis
  1. Everhard J M Vandervliet2,
  2. Filip M Vanhoenacker2,
  3. Annemie Snoeckx2,
  4. Jan L Gielen1,
  5. Pieter Van Dyck1,
  6. Paul M Parizel1
  1. 2
    Department of Radiology, AZ St-Maarten, campus Duffel, Rooienberg, Duffel, Belgium
  2. 1
    Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium
  1. Filip M Vanhoenacker, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem, Belgium; filip.vanhoenacker{at}


Acute and chronic sports-related muscle and tendon injuries are not infrequent in youngsters. In particular, the physis is prone to trauma as it constitutes the weakest part of the immature skeleton. The type of sports activity determines the location of the lesion. Most commonly, apophyses of the hip and pelvis are subject to avulsion. The purpose of this paper is to give a short overview of the pathogenesis, location, prevalence and imaging characteristics of acute and chronic avulsion injuries in the immature skeleton, with special emphasis on tennis-related injuries. Tennis-related injuries particularly involve apophyses of the ischial tuberosity, the anterior inferior or superior iliac spine and the iliac crest.

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  • Competing interests: None declared.

  • Abbreviations:
    anterior inferior iliac spine
    anterior superior iliac spine
    iliac crest
    ischial tuberosity
    lesser trochanter
    range of motion
    superior corner of pubic symphysis