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Does plyometric training improve vertical jump height? A meta-analytical review
  1. Goran Markovic
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr G Markovic
 Department of Kinesiology of Sport, University of Zagreb, Horvacanski zavoj 15, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia; gmarkov{at}


The aim of this study was to determine the precise effect of plyometric training (PT) on vertical jump height in healthy individuals. Meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effect of PT on four typical vertical jump height tests were carried out: squat jump (SJ); countermovement jump (CMJ); countermovement jump with the arm swing (CMJA); and drop jump (DJ). Studies were identified by computerised and manual searches of the literature. Data on changes in jump height for the plyometric and control groups were extracted and statistically pooled in a meta-analysis, separately for each type of jump. A total of 26 studies yielding 13 data points for SJ, 19 data points for CMJ, 14 data points for CMJA and 7 data points for DJ met the initial inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate of the effect of PT on vertical jump height was 4.7% (95% CI 1.8 to 7.6%), 8.7% (95% CI 7.0 to 10.4%), 7.5% (95% CI 4.2 to 10.8%) and 4.7% (95% CI 0.8 to 8.6%) for the SJ, CMJ, CMJA and DJ, respectively. When expressed in standardised units (ie, effect sizes), the effect of PT on vertical jump height was 0.44 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.72), 0.88 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.11), 0.74 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.02) and 0.62 (95% CI 0.18 to 1.05) for the SJ, CMJ, CMJA and DJ, respectively. PT provides a statistically significant and practically relevant improvement in vertical jump height with the mean effect ranging from 4.7% (SJ and DJ), over 7.5% (CMJA) to 8.7% (CMJ). These results justify the application of PT for the purpose of development of vertical jump performance in healthy individuals.

  • CMJ, countermovement jump
  • CMJA, countermovement jump with the arm swing
  • DJ, drop jump
  • ES, effect size
  • PT, plyometric training
  • SJ, squat jump
  • SSC, stretch-shortening cycle
  • Δtot, effect of PT on vertical jump height

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  • Published Online First 8 March 2007

  • Competing interests: None.