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Tissue engineering for tendon repair
  1. Pierre-Olivier Bagnaninchi1,
  2. Ying Yang1,
  3. Alicia J El Haj1,
  4. Nicola Maffulli2
  1. 1Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Hartshill, UK
  2. 2Keele University School of Medicine, Hartshill, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 N Maffulli
 Keele University School of Medicine, Hartshill, UK;osa14{at}


Tissue engineering aims to induce tissue self-regeneration in vivo or to produce a functional tissue replacement in vitro to be then implanted in the body. To produce a viable and functional tendon, a uniaxially orientated collagen type I matrix has to be generated. Biochemical and physical factors can potentially alter both the production and the organisation of this matrix, and their combination in a dose- and time-dependent manner is probably the key to in vitro engineered tendons. This review discusses the role of these different factors affecting tenocyte growth in a three-dimensional environment in vivo and in vitro, and underlines the future challenge of tendon tissue engineering.

  • bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor
  • BMP, bone morphogenetic protein
  • ECM, extracellular matrix
  • MMP, matrix metalloproteinase
  • MSC, mesenchymal stem cell
  • PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor

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  • Published Online First 24 October 2006

  • Competing interests: None declared.