A 35-year-old male bodybuilder was found to have a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arising in a pre-existing hepatic adenoma following recreational anabolic steroid use. Given the widespread use of recreational anabolic steroids, another potentially life-threatening complication is highlighted in addition to the more commonly recognised hepatic adenoma. Malignant transformation to HCC from a pre-existing hepatic adenoma confirmed by immunohistochemical study has previously not been reported in athletes taking anabolic steroids. Further studies using screening programmes to identify high-risk individuals are recommended.
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