Article Text

Download PDFPDF
The Lausanne recommendations: a Dutch experience
  1. B Bessem1,
  2. F P Groot1,
  3. W Nieuwland2
  1. 1
    University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Sports Medicine, Groningen, The Netherlands
  2. 2
    University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr B Bessem, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands; b.bessem{at}


Objective: This study presents the results of 28 months of preparticipation cardiovascular screening using the Lausanne recommendations, which include a personal and family history, physical examination and electrocardiogram (ECG).

Design: From January 2006 to April 2008 the data of the Lausanne screenings carried out at the University Centre of Sports Medicine in Groningen were collected.

Participants: 825 cardiovascular screenings were performed of which 397 were excluded. Exclusion criteria were age under 12 or over 35 years, multiple screenings (only the first was included) and known cardiovascular disease.

Main outcome measures: Negative screening result, (false) positive screening result, medical consumption and number needed to screen.

Results: A total of 371 (87%) athletes had a negative screening result. Fifty-five athletes (13%) underwent additional (stage 2) testing and seven (1.6%) further (stage 3) testing. Only 27 athletes (6.3%) were referred for additional testing based only on abnormalities of their ECG. Forty-seven athletes (11%) had a false-positive screening result. Ten athletes (2%) had a positive screening result and three (0.7%) were ultimately restricted from sports participation. Stage 2 medical consumption was 62%, 20% and 18% for one, two and three or more additional tests, respectively. Stage 3 medical consumption was 1.6%. The number of athletes needed to screen to find a single athlete with a potentially lethal cardiovascular disease was 143.

Conclusion: This study found that when the Lausanne recommendations are implemented in The Netherlands, screening results resemble those found in previous studies. The number of athletes needed to screen to detect one athlete with a potentially lethal cardiovascular disease is also within an acceptable range.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.