There has been increasing recognition of the need for effectiveness research within the real-world intervention context of community sport. This is important because, even if interventions have been shown to be efficacious in controlled trials, if they are not also widely adopted and sustained, then it is unlikely that they will have a public health impact. There is very little information about how to best conduct such studies, but application of health promotion frameworks, such as the RE-AIM framework, to evaluate the public health impact of interventions could potentially help to understand the implementation context. Care needs to be taken when directly applying the RE-AIM framework, however, because the definitions for each of its dimensions will depend on the level/s the intervention is targeted at. This paper provides a novel extension to the RE-AIM framework (the RE-AIM Sports Setting Matrix (RE-AIM SSM)), which accounts for the fact that many sports injury interventions need to be targeted at multiple levels of sports delivery. Accordingly, the RE-AIM components also need to be measured across all tiers of possible influence on the rate of uptake and effectiveness. Specific examples are given for coachdelivered exercise training interventions. The RE-AIM SSM is specific to the community sports setting implementation context and could be used to guide the delivery of future sports safety, and other health promotion, interventions in this area.
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