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Catastrophic injuries in the Olympic styles of wrestling in Iran
  1. R Kordi1,
  2. A Akbarnejad2,
  3. W A Wallace3
  1. 1Sports Medicine Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  2. 2College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
  3. 3Division of Orthopedic and Accident Surgery, Centre for Sports Medicine, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Assistant Professor R Kordi, Sports Medicine Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Jalal All Ahmad Highway, PO Box 14395-578, Tehran, Iran; ramin_kordi{at}


Objectives In this study, a profile of direct catastrophic injuries in international styles of wrestling was developed, and the possible risk factors were described.

Design Survey and retrospective review.

Setting Catastrophic injuries that occurred in wrestling clubs in Iran from July 1998 to June 2005 were identified by contacting several sources. The cases were retrospectively reviewed.

Results The injuries included were 29 direct injuries (12 fatalities, 11 non-fatal and 6 serious).The injury rate was 1.99 direct catastrophic injuries/100 000 wrestlers/year. The majority of direct injuries occurred during training sessions, with a trend towards more injuries in the lowweight and middle-weight classes and those who were competing at high performance and experience levels. The takedown position, especially for the attacking wrestler who faces a counterattack, was the most common activity at the time of injury. A list of risk factors was suggested, of which “performing the wrestling manoeuvre incorrectly”, “inappropriate management of the injury”, “lack of the coach supervision”, “mat problems” and “lack of restraining the wrestlers in a precarious position” were the most common risk factors.

Conclusions Catastrophic wrestling injuries are rare and preventable. Coaches have an essential role in the prevention of these injuries.

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  • * Sports insurance is obligatory for any person who wants to practise sport in any clubs in Iran

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval The study procedure was approved by the Tehran University of Medical Sciences Ethics Committee.

  • Patient consent Informed consent was obtained for publication of fig 5.