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Disorder of the long head of the biceps tendon
  1. Benno Ejnisman,
  2. Gustavo Cará Monteiro,
  3. Carlos Vicente Andreoli,
  4. Alberto de Castro Pochini
  1. Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  1. Correspondence to Dr Benno Ejnisman, Federal University of São Paulo, Rua Embaú 87, CEP 04039-060, São Paulo 05011001, Brazil; bennoale{at}


This paper focuses on biceps injuries in shoulder surgery. This topic is currently of great interest, and there has been much discussion about diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Biceps tendon pathology exists in many forms and is frequently associated with other shoulder disorders. These facts must be taken into consideration in the evaluation and treatment of patients with long head of the biceps pathology. There is much controversy about the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT). The clinical significance to shoulder function, diagnosis and treatment are still a source of debate. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy, function, pathology, clinical manifestation, physical examination, imaging and treatment of disorders of the LHBT.

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent Obtained.