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  1. Martin P Schwellnus
  1. University of Cape Town, South Africa

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Exercise rehabilitation of the vastus medialis oblique muscle for 8 weeks improved pain, function and muscle volume in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome – the addition of hip adduction exercises did not further improve outcomes


Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common chronic knee injury that is frequently treated by rehabilitation of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscle – however, it has been suggested that additional hip adduction training may result in improved clinical outcomes of this condition.

Research question/s

Does the addition of hip adduction exercises to VMO exercises further reduce pain and improve function in patients with PFPS?


Subjects: 79 out of 89 recruited subjects with PFPS (clinical diagnosis) completed the study (male=20).

Experimental procedure: All the subjects were initially assessed (pain (100 mm Visual Analogue Scale), function (Lysholm scale scores), and VMO morphology (cross-sectional area – CSA and volume using ultrasound)) and then randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups for 8 weeks (3/week): no exercise rehabilitation (CON=25); VMO exercise only (leg-press) (VMO=27); and VMO exercise combined with hip adduction (VMO+HA=27). Measurements were repeated after …

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