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Teleoanticipation in all-out short-duration cycling
  1. A L Wittekind1,
  2. D Micklewright2,
  3. R Beneke2
  1. 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, UK
  2. 2University of Essex, Colchester Essex, UK
  1. Correspondence to Anna L Wittekind, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, UK; alwitt{at}


Objective To investigate the effect of all-out cycling test duration on indices of power, anaerobic lactic energy metabolism, perceived exertion and mood.

Methods Nine physically active men undertook four all-out cycling tests of 5, 15, 30 or 45 s from seated stationary start on an ergometer fit with power cranks. The participants completed a Profile of Mood States questionnaire before each test and indicated perceived exertion immediately post-test (Borg 6–20 scale). Indices of anaerobic lactic metabolism were determined from blood lactate concentrations.

Results Pacing strategy was apparent in the 45-s tests with lower peak (p<0.01) and mean power in the initial 10 s compared to the 5- and 15-s tests (p<0.05). The first 15 s of the 30- and 45-s tests revealed lower fatigue indices compared to the 15-s tests (p<0.05) indicating some pacing in the 30-s tests. Perceived exertion increased with duration, with no difference between the 15- and 30-s tests (p>0.05). Extravascal lactate generation (reflecting exercising muscle lactate production) explained 59% of the variance in perceived exertion. There was no effect of knowledge of test duration on mood states or total mood disturbance (p>0.05).

Conclusions An all-out pacing strategy was apparent for at least up to 15 s, with indicators of dampened power in both 30 and 45 s sprints. Reduced power at the start of all-out long-duration sprints support a central control of at least initial pacing strategy.

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the University of Essex Ethics Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.