Genes control biological systems such as muscle, cartilage and bone formation, muscle energy production and metabolism (mitochondriogenesis, lactic acid removal), blood and tissue oxygenation (erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilatation) all essential in Athletics and Sports. DNA sequence variations in these genes confer genetic advantages that can be exploited and genetic ‘barriers’ that could be overcome to achieve optimal athletic performance.
The four ‘P's of Predictive Genomics (Personalization, Prediction, Prevention, Participation) are not only applicable but rather essential in athletics. Predictive genomic profiling for athletics reveals genetic variations that determine suitability for sports requiring either endurance or strength and speed, determine vulnerability to sports-related traumas as well as individualised nutritional requirements. Knowledge of genetic ‘suitability’ in respect to endurance capacity or strength and speed would lead to appropriate sport and athletic activity selection. Knowledge of genetic advantages and barriers would ‘direct’ an individualised training programme and nutritional plan and supplementation to achieving optimal performance, overcome the ‘pain barriers’ that results from intense exercise and pressure under competition with minimum waste of time and energy and avoidance of health risks (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, inflammation and injuries in tendons and bones) related to exercise, training and competition.
Genetic ‘profiling’ for Athletics and Sports performance is an essential tool for proper Athletic activity and Sport selection as well as for the formulation of Individualized and Personalized training and nutritional programmes for optimising health and performance for the athlete.
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