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Injury Epidemiology
Injury prediction in volleyball players.
  1. J C de la Cruz-Márquez,
  2. B Cueto-Martín,
  3. J C de la Cruz-Campos,
  4. A de la Cruz-Campos
  1. University of Granada, Granada, Spain
  1. Email: dlcruz{at}


Background An accentuated Quadriceps (Q) angle, genu valgum, flat feet, femoral anteversion, lumbar hyperlordosis and lower limb dysmetria can be factors favouring the occurrence of injuries.

Objective To determine what degrees of Q angle can be tolerated by and what corrector guidelines can be established for volleyball players.

Design A Q angle analysis was performed on 36 female and 41 male volleyball players from a Spanish honour division team for 5 years, as well as a measurement of weight distribution on a balance platform. We determined the injuries suffered during each season and their relation to the physical activity.

Setting and participants 44 females and 46 males (females: mean age 22±3.4 years; height: 182.3±5.7 cm; weight: 71.9±4.1 kg; males: 23±3.3 and; 188.2±3.8 cm; 84.8±6.9 kg) who were on the team during the 5-year period of study. Eight females and five males did not complete the study.

Interventions A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the influence of anthropometric factors on the occurrence of injuries.

Independent Variables: Anthropometric measures, balance, minutes of training.

Dependent: Injuries.

Results Females: In the right lower limb, the Q angle average is 14.14°±1.8 degrees, while in the left lower limb it is 14.97°±1.1 (p<0.01). Males: Right Q angle: 13.1°±2.2; Left: 13.75°±1.7 (p<0.01). Sharp Left Q angle favours the occurrence of lower limb and back injuries. There is no connection to practical exposure.

Conclusions We formulated a logistic regression equation that predicts the occurrence of injuries. Degree of satisfaction: 75% (females), 85% (males). 1/1+e-(0.757•LQA−0.647•DTT)2. (e: Natural Logarithm e; LQA: Left Q angle; DTT: Differences in thigh thickness).

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