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Hyperthermic-related challenges in aquatics, athletics, football, tennis and triathlon
  1. Margo Mountjoy1–3,
  2. Juan-Manuel Alonso4,5,
  3. Michael F Bergeron6,7,
  4. Jiri Dvorak8,9,
  5. Stuart Miller10,
  6. Sergio Migliorini11,12,
  7. Dato’ Gurcharan Singh13
  1. 1Department of Family Medicine, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2International Olympic Committee (IOC), Lausanne, Switzerland
  3. 3Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA), Lausanne, Switzerland
  4. 4Department of Medical and Anti-doping Commission, International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), Monte Carlo, Monaco
  5. 5Royal Spanish Athletics Federation (Real Federación Española de Atletismo, RFEA), Madrid, Spain
  6. 6National Youth Sports Health & Safety Institute, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA
  7. 7Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota; Sanford Children's Health Research Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA
  8. 8Department of Neurology, Spine Unit, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland
  9. 9FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre, Zurich, Switzerland
  10. 10Science & Technical Department, International Tennis Federation, Roehampton, London, UK
  11. 11International Triathlon Union (ITU), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  12. 12FITRI Medical Committee, Rome, Italy
  13. 13FIFA Medical Committee, Zurich, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Margo Mountjoy, Department of Sport Medicine, MG DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, c/o Box 340, 175 Alma Street, Rockwood, Ontario N0B 2K0, Canada; mmsportdoc{at}


Although many elite sporting events occur in climate-controlled venues, some athletes train and compete in environments that can potentially pose a risk to the athlete's health. In particular, athletes in aquatics, track and field, tennis, football and triathlon can be exposed to extreme heat during competition or while training. The International Federations responsible for these sports are aware of these health risks and have implemented measures to help protect the health of their athletes. This review paper outlines the sport-specific environmental health risks and the safety standards implemented to safeguard athlete health.

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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