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Hamstring exercises for track and field athletes: injury and exercise biomechanics, and possible implications for exercise selection and primary prevention
  1. Nikos Malliaropoulos1,
  2. Jurdan Mendiguchia2,
  3. Hercules Pehlivanidis1,
  4. Sofia Papadopoulou1,
  5. Xavier Valle3,4,5,
  6. Peter Malliaras6,
  7. Nicola Maffulli6
  1. 1National Track & Field Centre, Sports Medicine Clinic of S.E.G.A.S., Thessaloniki, Greece
  2. 2Zentrum Rehab and Performance Center, Department of Physical Therapy, Barañain, Spain
  3. 3 Medical Services F.C. Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
  4. 4Professional School of Sports Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
  5. 5High Performance Center (CAR de Sant Cugat – Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa), Barcelona, Spain
  6. 6The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Institute of Health Sciences Education Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine Mile End Hospital, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Jurdan Mendiguchia, Zentrum rehab and performance Center, Calle B N°23, Department of Physical Therapy, Barañain, Spain; Jurdan24{at}


Hamstring strain injuries are the most prevalent muscle injuries in track and field (TF). These injuries often cause prolonged symptoms and a high risk of re-injury. Strengthening of the hamstring muscles has been recommended for injury prevention. The authors review the possible role of eccentric training in TF hamstring injury prevention and introduce exercise classification criteria to guide clinicians in designing strengthening programmes adapted to TF. The principles exposed may serve as a foundation for future development and application of new eccentric programmes to decrease the high incidence of this type of injury in other sports.

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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