Article Text

Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ankle sprains: an evidence-based clinical guideline
  1. Gino M Kerkhoffs1,
  2. Michel van den Bekerom2,
  3. Leon A M Elders3,
  4. Peter A van Beek4,
  5. Wim A M Hullegie5,
  6. Guus M F M Bloemers6,
  7. Elly M de Heus7,
  8. Masja C M Loogman8,
  9. Kitty C J G M Rosenbrand9,
  10. Ton Kuipers10,
  11. J W A P Hoogstraten11,
  12. Rienk Dekker12,
  13. Henk-Jan ten Duis13,
  14. C Niek van Dijk14,
  15. Maurits W van Tulder15,
  16. Philip J van der Wees16,
  17. Rob A de Bie17
  1. 1Gino MMJ Kerkhoffs, Dutch Orthopaedic Society, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  2. 2Michel P van den Bekerom, Spaarne hospital, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands
  3. 3Leo AM Elders, Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine, Department of Allergology/Internal medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
  4. 4Peter A van Beek, Dutch Society Sports Physicians, Bilthoven, the Netherlands
  5. 5Wim AM Hullegie, Dutch Society for Physical Therapy in Sports, Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy, Fysiogym, Enschede, the Netherlands
  6. 6Guus MFM Bloemers, Dutch Association of Sports Massage, Arnhem, the Netherlands
  7. 7Elly M de Heus, Association of Orthopedic Patients, Age Concern, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands
  8. 8Masja CM Loogman, Dutch Association of General Healthcare, Utrecht, the Netherlands
  9. 9Kitty CJGM Rosenbrand, Dutch Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Utrecht, the Netherlands
  10. 10Ton Kuipers, Dutch Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Utrecht, the Netherlands
  11. 11Jos WAP van Hoogstraten, Dutch Radiological Society, Deventer hospitals, Deventer, the Netherlands
  12. 12Rienk Dekker, Dutch Society of Rehabilitation, University Medical Center, Groningen, the Netherlands
  13. 13Henk Jan ten Duis, Professor in Traumatology, Dutch Trauma Society, UMCG, Groningen, the Netherlands
  14. 14C Niek van Dijk, Professor in Orthopedic Surgery, Dutch Orthopedic Society, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  15. 15Maurits W van Tulder, Professor of Health Technology Assessment, EMGO, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  16. 16Philip J van der Wees, UM, Maastricht, the Netherlands
  17. 17Rob A de Bie, UM, Maastricht, the Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to MPJ van den Bekerom, Spaarnepoort 1, 2130 AT Hoofddorp, the Netherlands; bekerom{at} or to GMMJ Kerkhoffs, Meibergdreef 9, 1100 DD Amsterdam; G.M.Kerkhoffs{at}


Ankle injuries are a huge medical and socioeconomic problem. Many people have a traumatic injury of the ankle, most of which are a result of sports. Total costs of treatment and work absenteeism due to ankle injuries are high. The prevention of recurrences can result in large savings on medical costs. A multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline was developed with the aim to prevent further health impairment of patients with acute lateral ankle ligament injuries by giving recommendations with respect to improved diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities. The recommendations are based on evidence from published scientific research, which was extensively discussed by the guideline committee. This clinical guideline is helpful for healthcare providers who are involved in the management of patients with ankle injuries.

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  • GMK and MvdB contributed equally to the manuscript.

  • Funding The development of this guideline was financially supported by the Netherlands organisation for health research and development (ZonMw) within the framework of the programme ‘Management of Knowledge, Quality Curative Care’. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, centre, clinical practice or other charitable or non-profit organisation with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated. Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.