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External devices (including orthotics) to control excessive foot pronation
  1. Rafael Zambelli Pinto1,
  2. Thales R Souza2,
  3. Christopher G Maher1
  1. 1Musculoskeletal Division, The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
  2. 2Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  1. Correspondence to Rafael Zambelli Pinto, Musculoskeletal Division, The George Institute for Global Health, PO Box M201, Missenden Road, Camperdown, Sydney, New South Wales, 2050 Australia; rafaelzambelli{at}

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Foot pronation during the early stance phase of gait allows the foot to accommodate to the irregularities of the ground surface and to attenuate ground reaction forces. Pronation involves multiple joint movements at the rearfoot and midfoot, and may influence more proximal segments leading to internal rotation of the lower limb and hip.1

Excessive foot pronation may promote non-physiological stresses on bone and musculo-tendinous structures of the lower limb and subsequent injury.2 Several overuse injuries have been attributed to excessive foot pronation. Injuries might occur at the foot level, such as plantar fasciitis, as well as at …

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.