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From consensus to action: knowledge transfer, education and influencing policy on sports concussion
  1. Christine Provvidenza1,
  2. Lars Engebretsen2,3,4,
  3. Charles Tator5,6,
  4. Jamie Kissick7,
  5. Paul McCrory8,9,
  6. Allen Sills10,11,
  7. Karen M Johnston6,12
  1. 1Parachute (Formerly Safe Communities Canada, Safe Kids Canada, SMARTRISK, and ThinkFirst Canada), Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  3. 3Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Oslo, Norway
  4. 4International Olympic Committee, Oslo, Norway
  5. 5Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  6. 6Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  7. 7Ottawa Sport Medicine Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  8. 8Melbourne Brain Centre, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia
  9. 9Australian Centre for Research into Sports Injury and its Prevention (ACRISP), Monash Injury Research Institute (MIRI), Victoria, Australia
  10. 10Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Franklin, Tennessee, USA
  11. 11Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Franklin, Tennessee, USA
  12. 12Concussion Management Program, Athletic Edge Sports Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Karen M Johnston, Concussion Management Program, Athletic Edge Sports Medicine, 121 King Street West, Suite 1100, Toronto, ON, Canada M5H 3T9


Objective To: (1) provide a review of knowledge transfer (KT) and related concepts; (2) look at the impact of traditional and emerging KT strategies on concussion knowledge and education; (3) discuss the value and impact of KT to organisations and concussion-related decision making and (4) make recommendations for the future of concussion education.

Design Qualitative literature review of KT and concussion education literature.

Intervention PubMed, Medline and Sport Discus databases were reviewed and an internet search was conducted. The literature search was restricted to articles published in the English language, but not restricted to any particular years. Altogether, 67 journal articles, 21 websites, 1 book and 1 report were reviewed.

Results The value of KT as part of concussion education is increasingly becoming recognised. Target audiences benefit from specific learning strategies. Concussion tools exist, but their effectiveness and impact require further evaluation. The media is valuable in drawing attention to concussion, but efforts need to ensure that the public is aware of the right information. Social media as a concussion education tool is becoming more prominent. Implementation of KT models is one approach which organisations can use to assess knowledge gaps; identify, develop and evaluate education strategies and use the outcomes to facilitate decision-making.

Conclusions Implementing KT strategies requires a defined plan. Identifying the needs, learning styles and preferred learning strategies of target audiences, coupled with evaluation, should be a piece of the overall concussion education puzzle to have an impact on enhancing knowledge and awareness.

  • Concussion
  • Injury Prevention

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