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2014 Consensus Statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) Conference (Vancouver)
  1. Jennifer C Davis1,2,
  2. Evert Verhagen3,
  3. Stirling Bryan2,
  4. Teresa Liu-Ambrose4,
  5. Jeff Borland5,
  6. David Buchner6,
  7. Marike RC Hendriks3,7,
  8. Richard Weiler8,
  9. James R Morrow Jr9,
  10. Willem van Mechelen3,
  11. Steven N Blair10,
  12. Mike Pratt11,
  13. Johann Windt12,
  14. Hashel al-Tunaiji4,
  15. Erin Macri4,
  16. Karim M Khan13,14,
  17. The EPIC Group
  1. 1School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  2. 2Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  3. 3Department of Public and Occupational Health & EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  4. 4Centre for Hip Health, Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
  5. 5Business and Economics, University of Melbourne, Australia
  6. 6Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, MC-588 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA
  7. 7Department of Human Movement Science, NUTRIM, School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands
  8. 8Institute of Sport, Exercise and Health, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  9. 9University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA
  10. 10Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, South Carolina, USA
  11. 11NCCDPHP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  12. 12Department of Experimental Medicine, University of British Columbia, Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada
  13. 13Department of Family Practice, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  14. 14Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jennifer C Davis, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, 828 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 1M9; jennifer.davis{at}


This article describes major topics discussed from the ‘Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop’ (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence.

  • Exercise
  • Physical Activity Promotion in Primary Care
  • Physical Activity Measurement

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