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Benefits of combining inspiratory muscle with ‘whole muscle’ training in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomised controlled trial
  1. Elena Santana-Sosa1,
  2. Laura Gonzalez-Saiz1,
  3. Iris F Groeneveld2,
  4. José R Villa-Asensi3,
  5. María I Barrio Gómez de Aguero3,
  6. Steven J Fleck4,
  7. Luis M López-Mojares1,
  8. Margarita Pérez1,
  9. Alejandro Lucia1,5
  1. 1School of Doctorate Studies and Research, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain
  2. 2Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  3. 3Department of Pneumology, Hospital ‘Nino Jesus’ of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  4. 4Department of Health, Exercise Science and Sport Management, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, Wisconsin, USA
  5. 5Instituto de Investigación i+12, Madrid, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alejandro Lucia, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid 28670, Spain; alejandro.lucia{at}


Background The purpose of this study (randomised controlled trial) was to assess the effects of an 8-week combined ‘whole muscle’ (resistance+aerobic) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on lung volume, inspiratory muscle strength (PImax) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) (primary outcomes), and dynamic muscle strength, body composition and quality of life in paediatric outpatients with CF (cystic fibrosis, secondary outcomes). We also determined the effects of a detraining period.

Methods Participants were randomly allocated with a block on gender to a control (standard therapy) or intervention group (initial n=10 (6 boys) in each group; age 10±1 and 11±1 years). The latter group performed a combined programme (IMT (2 sessions/day) and aerobic+strength exercises (3 days/week, in-hospital)) that was followed by a 4-week detraining period. All participants were evaluated at baseline, post-training and detraining.

Results Adherence to the training programme averaged 97.5%±1.7%. There was a significant interaction (group×time) effect for PImax, VO2peak and five-repetition maximum strength (leg-press, bench-press, seated-row) (all (p<0.001), and also for %fat (p<0.023) and %fat-free mass (p=0.001), with training exerting a significant beneficial effect only in the intervention group, which was maintained after detraining for PImax and leg-press.

Conclusion The relatively short-term (8-week) training programme used here induced significant benefits in important health phenotypes of paediatric patients with CF. IMT is an easily applicable intervention that could be included, together with supervised exercise training in the standard care of these patients.

  • Children and exercise
  • Aerobic fitness/Vo2 Max
  • Children
  • Children's health and exercise

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