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Anterior cruciate ligament and hamstrings: new research to guide clinical management
  1. Nikos Malliaropoulos1–3,
  2. Xavier Valle4,5,
  3. Gil Rodas5,
  4. Luis Til5
  1. 1Sports Clinic, Mile End Hospital Barts and The London, UK
  2. 2National Athletics Clinic, Thessaloniki, Greece
  3. 3Center Sports and Exercise Medicine QMUL, London, UK
  4. 4Anatomy Department, Professional School of Sports Medicine, University of Barcelona, Spain
  5. 5Medical Services, FC Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Dr Nikos Malliaropoulos; contact{at}

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Soft tissue injuries still generate much research on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Outcomes from research help clinicians with their decisions, however, there always remains more to know.

Better understanding of anterior cruciate ligament injuries

Genetic variants within genes involved in fibrillogenesis have previously been implicated in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury susceptibility. Proteoglycans also have important functions in fibrillogenesis and maintaining the structural integrity of ligaments. These independent associations and haplotype analyses suggest that regions that encode for proteoglycans may modulate the ligament fibril properties and may be associated with susceptibility to ACL injury (see page 1640). Sustaining an ACL injury and having surgical repair results in a relatively low rate of return to competitive sport despite the high rates of success in terms of knee impairment outcomes. Other factors may be contributing to low return-to-sport outcomes and it is worth considering psychological factors (see page 1613).

Hamstring research that guides clinical intervention

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