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  1. M Lubiatowski1,2,
  2. M Grygorowicz1,3,
  3. P Kaczmarek1,
  4. P Cisowski1,
  5. M Dzianach1,
  6. W Dudzinski1,
  7. L Romanowski2
  1. 1Rehasport Clinic, Poznan, Poland
  2. 2Department of Traumatology, Orthopaedics and Hand Surgery, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
  3. 3Department of Physiotherapy, Institute of Health Protection, Stanislaw Staszic State School of Higher Vocational Education in Pila, Pila, Poznan, Poland


Background GIRD is a condition resulting in the loss of internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint as compared to the contralateral side. Mechanism of GIRD is caused by repetitive throwing such as a handball throw. Difference between total shoulders range of motion (ROM) more than 25° is considered as GIRD positive sign.

Objective To compare glenohumeral rotation motion between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in handball players.

Design Cross sectional study.

Setting Elite handball division players.

Participants The pilot studies included 48 professional handball players of average age 24.0±4.5 years, height 187.1±5.9 cm, weight 91.0±11.6 kg.

Interventions All handball players were tested for internal (IR) and external (ER) glenohumeral rotation range of motion. Mean values, minimum, maximum and standard deviation were calculated. Differences between the dominant (D) and non-dominant (ND) shoulder were determined. T-Test for two independent samples was used to analyze differences between D and ND shoulder. Statistical significance was set at P<.05.

Main Outcomes ROM.

Results We obtained:for ER_D 60.63°±13.23° and for ED_ND 58.65°±13.98°, respectively; for IR_D: 92.60°±6.92° and for IR_ND 88.96°±6.99°. Total ROM values were 153.23°±17.79° for D and 147.60°±18.76° for ND shoulder. Differences between D and ND shoulders was statistically significant only for IR: 3.65°±4.34°; P=.0118. For ER: 1.98°±4.92° and Total ROM: 5.63°±7.76° there was no significant differences (P>.05).

Conclusions However there are some cases with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit there is more evidence that such a deficit does not exists in handball players. To verify this results further study with grater sample size should be conducted in comparison to other professional overhead athletes.

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