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Heat research guides current practices in professional tennis
  1. Todd S Ellenbecker1,
  2. Kathleen A Stroia2
  1. 1 ATP World Tour, Physiotherapy Associates Scottsdale Sports Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA
  2. 2 WTA Women's Tennis Association, St Petersburg, Florida, USA
  1. Correspondence to Todd S Ellenbecker, Senior Director Medical Services, ATP World Tour, Physiotherapy Associates Scottsdale Sports Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ 85258, USA; tellenbecker{at}

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Professional tennis places extraordinary demands on elite tennis players. Previously published profiles characterise the inherent physiological demands of tennis play and the adaptations incurred by elite-level tennis players. These include the requirement of repeated maximal level exertions during points with average durations ranging between 2 and >8 s depending on the match surface and player's gender.1 ,2 Match durations of greater than 5 h can be encountered. During these matches, a work rest ratio of 1 : 2 is reported with movement demands requiring a mean of three shots, 4.2 directional changes and an average distance of 3 m is required to optimally position the body for shot production and execution. All of this can occur during extreme environmental temperatures played in outdoor stadiums and tennis facilities.

Several previous studies have profiled the body core temperature responses during competition as well as estimated sweat rates (1 to over 3.5 L/h) from elite-level tennis players during matches in challenging thermal environmental conditions.3 ,4 Core body temperatures …

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