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PP17 Four square step test normative data for healthy young adults
  1. F Torlak1,
  2. M Moffat2
  1. 1Department of Sport Medicine, Potsdam University, Germany
  2. 2Department of Physical Therapy, New York University, USA


During sports activities the balance problems became the main reason of falling. In order to assess the balance there have been several techniques, but dynamic balance tests are the most useful techniques. Four square step test (FSST) is a previously reported a feasible and valid clinical test of dynamic standing balance, which still need normative data. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for the FSST in normal, healthy young adults and to determine if differences existed between males and females. 30 healthy participants (15 females (f): 26 y, 1.63, 56 ± 1 kg; 15 males (m): 26 y, 1.77m; 76 ± 6 kg) were included in the study. All participants performed one warm-up trials followed by two testing trial. Four canes formed at 90 degree angles to each other (like a plus sign) were used for this study. The subjects stood with shoes on in square 1, directly facing the square in front (square 2). They stepped clockwise around the “plus sign” by moving forward, then to the right, then backward, and then to the left; after that they reversed the path and repeated the sequence in a counterclockwise direction. Participants completed the sequence as fast as possible without touching the canes and facing forward as much as possible for the sequence. Data was analysed descriptively (mean ± SD). The mean time for performance of the FSST for female young adults was 7.4707 s. The mean time for male young adults was 6.3447 s. The mean performance time score for both female and male subjects was 6.9077 s (± 0.494 s). This study showed that the normative time for normal, healthy, young adults to perform the FSST was 6.9077 s. The collection of these data allows for the definition of normal limits and begins the study of clinically important variables on test results and clinical outcomes.

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