Article Text

Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes
  1. Adam Weir1,
  2. Peter Brukner2,
  3. Eamonn Delahunt3,4,
  4. Jan Ekstrand5,
  5. Damian Griffin6,
  6. Karim M Khan1,7,
  7. Greg Lovell8,
  8. William C Meyers9,
  9. Ulrike Muschaweck10,
  10. John Orchard11,
  11. Hannu Paajanen12,
  12. Marc Philippon13,14,15,
  13. Gilles Reboul1,16,
  14. Philip Robinson17,
  15. Anthony G Schache18,
  16. Ernest Schilders19,
  17. Andreas Serner21,
  18. Holly Silvers20,
  19. Kristian Thorborg21,
  20. Timothy Tyler22,
  21. Geoffrey Verrall23,
  22. Robert-Jan de Vos24,
  23. Zarko Vuckovic1,
  24. Per Hölmich1,21
  1. 1Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar
  2. 2Latrobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  4. 4Institute for Sport and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  5. 5Football Research Group, Department of Medicine and Health, University of Linköping, Linkoping, Sweden
  6. 6Warwick Medical School, University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, UK
  7. 7Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  8. 8Australian Institute of Sport, Bruce, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  9. 9Vincera Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  10. 10Hernia centre Dr. Muschaweck, Munich, Germany
  11. 11School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  12. 12Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
  13. 13The Steadman Clinic, Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA
  14. 14McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  15. 15University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  16. 16Hernia Center, Clinique du Sport, Merignac, France
  17. 17Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  18. 18Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  19. 19Fortius Clinic, Leeds Beckett University, The Wellington Hospital, London, UK
  20. 20Santa Monica Sports Medicine Foundation & Institute for Sports Science, University of Delaware, Delaware, USA
  21. 21Sports Orthopedic Research Center – Copenhagen (SORC-C), Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Amager-Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
  22. 22The Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine & Athletic Trauma @ Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, New York, USA
  23. 23SPORTSMED.SA Sports Medicine Clinic, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  24. 24Department of orthopaedics, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr Adam Weir, Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, P.O. Box 29222, Doha, Qatar;{at}


Background Heterogeneous taxonomy of groin injuries in athletes adds confusion to this complicated area.

Aim The ‘Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes’ was convened to attempt to resolve this problem. Our aim was to agree on a standard terminology, along with accompanying definitions.

Methods A one-day agreement meeting was held on 4 November 2014. Twenty-four international experts from 14 different countries participated. Systematic reviews were performed to give an up-to-date synthesis of the current evidence on major topics concerning groin pain in athletes. All members participated in a Delphi questionnaire prior to the meeting.

Results Unanimous agreement was reached on the following terminology. The classification system has three major subheadings of groin pain in athletes:

1. Defined clinical entities for groin pain: Adductor-related, iliopsoas-related, inguinal-related and pubic-related groin pain.

2. Hip-related groin pain.

3. Other causes of groin pain in athletes.

The definitions are included in this paper.

Conclusions The Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes reached a consensus on a clinically based taxonomy using three major categories. These definitions and terminology are based on history and physical examination to categorise athletes, making it simple and suitable for both clinical practice and research.

  • Consensus statement
  • Evidence-based
  • Groin
  • Hip
  • Injury

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Supplementary materials

  • Supplementary Data

    This web only file has been produced by the BMJ Publishing Group from an electronic file supplied by the author(s) and has not been edited for content.