Article Text

Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests
  1. Andrew S McIntosh 1 , 2,
  2. Declan A Patton 1
  1. 1 ACRISP, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2 McIntosh Consultancy and Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Andrew S McIntosh, ACRISP, Federation University Australia, P.O. Box 663, Ballarat, VIC 3353, Australia; as.mcintosh{at}


Background The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk.

Methods A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid ‘fist’ with a glove was used.

Results The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9–5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200–5600 rad/s2 and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard.

Conclusions The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training.

  • Boxing/Kick Boxing
  • Martial Arts
  • Brain
  • Concussion
  • Biomechanics

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