Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Blood, sweat and tears: training and competing in the heat
  1. BM Pluim1,
  2. S Racinais2,
  3. JD Périard2
  1. 1Medical Department, KNLTB, Amersfoort, The Netherlands
  2. 2Research Education Centre, ASPETAR—Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar
  1. Correspondence to Dr BM Pluim, Medical Department, KNLTB, Displayweg 4, 3821 BT Amersfoort 3800 BP, The Netherlands; bpluim{at}

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

The Consensus Statement by Racinais et al1 on training and competing in the heat provides practical recommendations for athletes, clinicians and event organisers to optimise performance during sporting activities in the heat. The focus is on three different areas: heat acclimatisation, hydration and cooling strategies, with practical recommendations for event organisers.

Heat acclimatisation is the most important intervention available to reduce physiological strain and optimise exercise capacity in hot ambient conditions. Most adaptations develop within the first week of heat acclimatisation, and more slowly in the subsequent 2 weeks.2 Consequently, athletes benefit from only a few days of acclimatisation, but may require up to 2 weeks for optimal performance. Training sessions should last at least 60 min per day and induce a significant increase in body and skin temperatures, as well as …

View Full Text


  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

Linked Articles