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Antidoping programme and biological monitoring before and during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil
  1. Norbert Baume1,
  2. Nicolas Jan1,
  3. Caroline Emery1,
  4. Béatrice Mandanis1,
  5. Carine Schweizer1,
  6. Sylvain Giraud1,
  7. Nicolas Leuenberger1,
  8. François Marclay1,
  9. Raul Nicoli1,
  10. Laurent Perrenoud1,
  11. Neil Robinson1,
  12. Jiri Dvorak2,3,
  13. Martial Saugy1
  1. 1Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses, University Center of Legal Medicine, Geneva & Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
  2. 2FIFA, Zürich, Switzerland
  3. 3FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) and Schulthess Clinic, Zürich, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Norbert Baume, Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses, University Center of Legal Medicine, Geneva & Lausanne, Chemin des Croisettes 22, Epalinges 1066, Switzerland; norbert.baume{at}


Background The FIFA has implemented an important antidoping programme for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

Aim To perform the analyses before and during the World Cup with biological monitoring of blood and urine samples.

Methods All qualified players from the 32 teams participating in the World Cup were tested out-of-competition. During the World Cup, 2–8 players per match were tested. Over 1000 samples were collected in total and analysed in the WADA accredited Laboratory of Lausanne.

Results The quality of the analyses was at the required level as described in the WADA technical documents. The urinary steroid profiles of the players were stable and consistent with previously published papers on football players. During the competition, amphetamine was detected in a sample collected on a player who had a therapeutic use exemption for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The blood passport data showed no significant difference in haemoglobin values between out-of-competition and postmatch samples.

Conclusions Logistical issues linked to biological samples collection, and the overseas shipment during the World Cup did not impair the quality of the analyses, especially when used as the biological passport of football players.

  • Football

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