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2016 consensus statement of the International Ankle Consortium: prevalence, impact and long-term consequences of lateral ankle sprains
  1. Phillip A Gribble1,
  2. Chris M Bleakley2,
  3. Brian M Caulfield3,
  4. Carrie L Docherty4,
  5. François Fourchet5,
  6. Daniel Tik-Pui Fong6,
  7. Jay Hertel7,
  8. Claire E Hiller8,
  9. Thomas W Kaminski9,
  10. Patrick O McKeon10,
  11. Kathryn M Refshauge8,
  12. Evert A Verhagen11,
  13. Bill T Vicenzino12,
  14. Erik A Wikstrom13,
  15. Eamonn Delahunt14
  1. 1University of Kentucky, College of Health Sciences, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
  2. 2Department of Life and Health Sciences, Ulster University, Jordanstown, Carrickfergus, UK
  3. 3University College Dublin, Insight Centre for Data Analytics, Dublin, Ireland
  4. 4Indiana University, College of Public Health, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
  5. 5Physiotherapy Department, Hôpital La Tour, Geneva, Switzerland
  6. 6National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine—East Midlands, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK
  7. 7Departments of Kinesiology and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
  8. 8University of Sydney, College of Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  9. 9Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
  10. 10Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York, USA
  11. 11Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  12. 12University of Queensland, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences: Physiotherapy, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  13. 13Department of Exercise & Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  14. 14University College Dublin, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, Dublin, Ireland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Phillip A Gribble, Charles Wethington, Jr. Building, Room 206C, 900 South Limestone, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200, USA; phillip.gribble{at}


The Executive Committee of the International Ankle Consortium presents this 2016 position paper with recommendations for information implementation and continued research based on the paradigm that lateral ankle sprain (LAS), and the development of chronic ankle instability (CAI), serve as a conduit to a significant global healthcare burden. We intend our recommendations to serve as a mechanism to promote efforts to improve prevention and early management of LAS. We believe this will reduce the prevalence of CAI and associated sequelae that have led to the broader public health burdens of decreased physical activity and early onset ankle joint post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Ultimately, this can contribute to healthier lifestyles and promotion of physical activity.

  • Ankle
  • Physical activity

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  • Twitter Follow Phillip Gribble at @gribblepa, Evert Verhagen at @Evertverhagen and Erik Wikstrom at @ea_wikstrom

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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