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Evidence review for the 2016 International Ankle Consortium consensus statement on the prevalence, impact and long-term consequences of lateral ankle sprains
  1. Phillip A Gribble1,
  2. Chris M Bleakley2,
  3. Brian M Caulfield3,
  4. Carrie L Docherty4,
  5. François Fourchet5,
  6. Daniel Tik-Pui Fong6,
  7. Jay Hertel7,
  8. Claire E Hiller8,
  9. Thomas W Kaminski9,
  10. Patrick O McKeon10,
  11. Kathryn M Refshauge8,
  12. Evert A Verhagen11,
  13. Bill T Vicenzino12,
  14. Erik A Wikstrom13,
  15. Eamonn Delahunt14
  1. 1University of Kentucky, College of Health Sciences, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
  2. 2Department of Life and Health Sciences, Ulster University, Jordanstown, Carrickfergus, UK
  3. 3University College Dublin, Insight Centre for Data Analytics, Dublin, Ireland
  4. 4Indiana University, School of Public Health, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
  5. 5Physiotherapy Department, Hôpital La Tour, Geneva, Switzerland
  6. 6National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine—East Midlands, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK
  7. 7Departments of Kinesiology and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
  8. 8University of Sydney, College of Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  9. 9Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
  10. 10Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York, USA
  11. 11Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  12. 12University of Queensland, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences: Physiotherapy, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  13. 13Department of Exercise & Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  14. 14University College Dublin, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, Dublin, Ireland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Phillip A Gribble, Charles Wethington, Jr. Building, Room 206C, 900 South Limestone, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200, USA; phillip.gribble{at}


Lateral ankle sprains (LASs) are the most prevalent musculoskeletal injury in physically active populations. They also have a high prevalence in the general population and pose a substantial healthcare burden. The recurrence rates of LASs are high, leading to a large percentage of patients with LAS developing chronic ankle instability. This chronicity is associated with decreased physical activity levels and quality of life and associates with increasing rates of post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis, all of which generate financial costs that are larger than many have realised. The literature review that follows expands this paradigm and introduces emerging areas that should be prioritised for continued research, supporting a companion position statement paper that proposes recommendations for using this summary of information, and needs for specific future research.

  • Ankle
  • Public health

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  • Twitter Follow Phillip Gribble at @gribblepa, Evert Verhagen at @Evertverhagen and Erik Wikstrom at @ea_wikstrom

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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