Objectives The genotypes of α-actinin-3 (ACTN3), angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), bradykinin B2 receptor (BDKRB2) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes have been associated to skeletal muscle efficiency, strength, resistance and power. Therefore, the aim of this study was associate the ACE ID, ACTN-3 RX, AGT MT and B2BRK -9 + 9 polimorphisms and power genotype score to myocardial and muscle injury induced by endurance exercise.
Methods Sixty male endurance runners participated in this study. Blood samples (30 mL) were collected 24 h before, immediately after, 24 h after, 72 h after, 15 days after the São Paulo International Marathon 2015 (60 runners, 15-17°C and relative humidity of 82%). The power genotype score was based on ACE ID, ACTN-3 RX, AGT MT and B2BRK -9 + 9 polimorphisms. To quantify the combined influence of all 4 polymorphisms currently associated with power phenotypes, an algorithm was created to incorporate the 4 genotype. The total score was then transformed mathematically to lie within the range 0–100 (to be intuitively meaningful) and labelled the power genotype score. The following parameters were carried out to evaluate muscle injury: pro-BNP, creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin, myoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT).
Results The demographic data for these subjects are summarised as follows: age, 34 ± 6 years; height, 174 ± 0 cm; body mass, 74 ± 1 kg;% of fat mass, 20 ± 0.5; body mass index, 25 ± 0.2 kg/m2; average training race 56 ± 2,2 km/week; frequency of training 4,4 time/week; time on 10 km race 46 ± 0.7 minutes. Marathon race induced an increase on myoglobin (21-fold, p < 0.0001), CK (4-fold, p < 0.0001), Pro BNP (3-fold p < 0.0001), troponin (4.5-fold p < 0.0001), CK-MB (8-fold, p < 0.0001), LDH (2-fold, p < 0.0001), AST (2.5-fold, p < 0.0001), ALT (1.4-fold, p < 0.0001) increased immediately after race; myoglobin, troponin, pro-BNP, CK, LDH, and AST returned to basal levels 15 days after race and CK-MB and ALT remained elevated 15 days after race. Pro-BNP, LDH, CK response tended to be higher in ACNT-3 XX genotype (p < 0.05). ALT, AST and CK-MB response tended to be greater in ACE DD genotype. BDKB2R −9-9 had protective response to CK, CK-MB and Myoglobin and higher response to BNP. After race, we observed negative correlation between power genotype score and LDH, CK and myoglobin (p < 0.05, r = 0.38, 0.27 e 0.27, respectively).
Conclusion The power genotype score are associated with endurance exercise-induced muscle injury suggesting less injury on runners with high power genotype score.
Acknowledgment This work was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) [Project Number 2014/21501-0].
- long-distance exercise
- muscle damage
- power genotype.
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