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The Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (Child SCAT5): Background and rationale
  1. Gavin A Davis1,2,
  2. Laura Purcell3,
  3. Kathryn J Schneider4,5,6,
  4. Keith Owen Yeates7,
  5. Gerard A Gioia8,9,
  6. Vicki Anderson1,
  7. Richard G Ellenbogen10,
  8. Ruben J Echemendia11,
  9. Michael Makdissi2,12,
  10. Allen Sills13,
  11. Grant L Iverson14,
  12. Jiří Dvořák15,
  13. Paul McCrory2,
  14. Willem Meeuwisse16,
  15. Jon Patricios17,18,
  16. Christopher C Giza19,
  17. Jeffrey S Kutcher20
  1. 1 Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia
  2. 2 Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Austin Campus, Melbourne Brain Centre, Heidelberg, Australia
  3. 3 Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  4. 4 Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  5. 5 Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child & Maternal Health, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  6. 6 Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  7. 7 Department of Psychology, Alberta Children’s Research Institute, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
  8. 8 Division of Pediatric Neuropsychology, Children’s National Health System, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA
  9. 9 Department of Pediatrics and Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA
  10. 10 Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  11. 11 University Orthopaedic Center, Concussion Care Clinic, State College, PA, USA; University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
  12. 12 Olympic Park Sports Medicine Centre, Melbourne, Australia
  13. 13 Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
  14. 14 Center for Health and Rehabilitation Research, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA
  15. 15 Swiss Concussion Center, Schulthess Clinic Zurich, Switzerland
  16. 16 Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre, Faculty of Kinesiolgy, University of Calgary, Canada
  17. 17 Section Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
  18. 18 Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
  19. 19 UCLA Steve Tisch BrainSPORT Program, Operation MEND TBI Program, Los Angeles, USA
  20. 20 The Sports Neurology Clinic at the CORE Institute, Michigan, USA
  1. Correspondence to Professor Gavin A Davis, Suite 53 - Neurosurgery, Cabrini Medical Centre, Malvern, Victoria, Australia; gavin.davis{at}


This article presents the Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (Child SCAT5). The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool was introduced in 2004, following the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport in Prague, Czech Republic. Following the 4th International Consensus Conference, held in Zurich, Switzerland, in 2012, the SCAT 3rd edition (Child SCAT3) was developed for children aged between 5 and12 years. Research to date was reviewed and synthesised for the 5th International Consensus Conference on Concussion in Sport in Berlin, Germany, leading to the current revision of the test, the Child SCAT5. This article describes the development of the Child SCAT5.

  • Concussion
  • Brain Injury
  • Children
  • Assessment
  • Sport

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  • Competing interests GAD is an honorary member of the Australian Football League Concussion Working Group and has attended meetings organised by sporting organisations including the NFL (USA), National Rugby League (Australia) and FIFA (Switzerland); however, he has not received any payment, research funding or other monies from these groups other than for travel costs. LP is an expert consultant to mdBriefcase in the development of an online concussion education module and has received speaking honoraria/travel expenses for presentations at scientific meetings. KJS has received speaking honoraria for presentations at scientific meetings. She is a physiotherapy consultant at Evidence Sport and Spinal Therapy in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and for athletic teams. KOY has received grant funding from NIH and Canadian Institutes of Health Research and book royalties from Guilford Press and Cambridge University Press and has occasionally served as an expert witness in forensic cases; he is President-Elect of the International Neuropsychological Society and a member of the Expert Panel on Acute Diagnosis and Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among Children and Adolescents convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RGE is a volunteer co-chairman of the NFL Head Neck and Spine Medical Committee. RJE is a consultant to the NHL, Major League Soccer, US Soccer Federation and Princeton University. He has received financial remuneration for these consulting relationships. He has a clinical practice in sport neuropsychology and serves as an expert (neuropsychology, sport neuropsychology) in medico-legal cases involving traumatic brain injury. He at times has received honoraria and reimbursement of expenses to attend professional meetings. MM is Consultant Sport and Exercise Medicine Physician at Olympic Park Sports Medicine Centre, Team Doctor—Hawthorn football club (Australian Football League(AFL)). AFL research grant—funding for research program on concussion in AFL (collaboration between the AFL and the Florey Institute of Neuroscience & Mental Health). Shareholder—Olympic Park Sports Medicine Centre. IOC—travel and accommodation paid as part of Ad Hoc Committee to evaluate rule changes in boxing. FIFA—Travel and accommodation paid as part of International Concussion in Sport Group. AFL—support for travel to NFL concussion ‘think tank’ August 2014. CogState Pty Ltd—free access to computerised neuropsychological testing program for research purposes. AFL Doctors Association—paid role as executive officer. Honorary member of the Australian Rugby Union Concussion Advisory Group; World Rugby Concussion working group; Concussion in AFL working group; AFL Concussion Scientific Committee and Member and the International Olympic Committee ad hoc group to evaluate rule change in boxing. AS is an unaffiliated neurotrauma consultant, the NFL . GLI acknowledges philanthropic research support from the Mooney-Reed Charitable Foundation and ImPACT Applications, Inc. He has a medical-legal consulting practice, including expert testimony, in the area of neuropsychology and mild traumatic brain injury. PMcC is a co-investigator, collaborator, or consultant on grants relating to mild TBI funded by several governmental organizations. He is directly employed by the National Health & Medical Research Council of Australia and is based at the Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health. He is Co-Chair of the Australian Centre for Research into Sports Injury and its Prevention (ACRISP), which is one of the International University Research Centres for Prevention of Injury and Protection of Athlete Health supported by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). He is co-chair of the International Concussion in Sport Group and is a member of the scientific advisory boards of the International Concussion & Head Injury Research Foundation (London, UK) and the Sports Surgery Clinic (Dublin, Ireland). He has a clinical and consulting practice in general and sports neurology. He receives book royalties from McGraw-Hill and was employed in an editorial capacity by the British Medical Journal Publishing Group from 2001 to 2008. He has been reimbursed by the government, professional scientific bodies, and sporting bodies for travel costs related to presenting research on mild TBI and sport-related concussion at meetings, scientific conferences, and symposiums. He received consultancy fees in 2010 from Axon Sports (US) for the development of educational material (which was not renewed) and has received research funding since 2001 from CogState Inc. The Australian Football League funds research at the Florey Institute under a legal memorandum and Dr. McCrory does not receive any money from this industry funded research. Dr. McCrory is a cofounder and shareholder in two biomedical companies (involved in eHealth and Compression garment technologies) but does not hold any individual shares in any company related to concussion or brain injury assessment or technology. He did not receive any form of financial support directly related to this manuscript. WM is Medical Director for the National Hockey League. JP is concussion consultant to South African Rugby’s BokSmart injury prevention programme and a member of World Rugby’s Concussion Advisory Group; both organisations have contributed honoraria towards conference expenses. GAG receives royalties as a test author from Psychological Assessment Resources, receives research funding from the CDC and NIH, receives speaking Honoria for professional lectures, and is on the pediatric mild TBI guidelines panel of the CDC. CCG receives grants/research support from NIH, NCAA, DoD, Today’s and Tomorrow’s Children Fund, UCLA Brain Injury Research Center, UCLA Faculty Grants Program, UCLA Steve Tisch BrainSPORT program, Avanir (research grant 2016-2017), NINDS Neural Analytics SBIR grant (2016-2018)Consultant: NFL-Neurological Care Program, NHLPA, Neural Analytics Inc (2015-16), is on the advisory panel of LoveYourBrain, MLS, NBA, NCAA, USSF, performs medicolegal work 1-2 cases annually, and speaks on the Medical Education Speakers Network.JSK provides consulting to National Basketball Association, National Football League Players' Association, National Hockey League Players' Association, ElMindA, Ltd. VA and JD have nothing to declare.

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