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The Concussion Recognition Tool 5th Edition (CRT5): Background and rationale
  1. Ruben J Echemendia1,2,
  2. Willem Meeuwisse3,
  3. Paul McCrory4,
  4. Gavin A Davis5,
  5. Margot Putukian6,
  6. John Leddy7,8,
  7. Michael Makdissi9,
  8. S John Sullivan10,
  9. Steven P Broglio11,
  10. Martin Raftery12,
  11. Kathryn Schneider13,14,15,
  12. James Kissick16,17,18,
  13. Michael McCrea19,
  14. Jiří Dvořák20,
  15. Allen K Sills21,
  16. Mark Aubry22,
  17. Lars Engebretsen23,
  18. Mike Loosemore24,
  19. Gordon Fuller25,
  20. Jeffrey Kutcher26,
  21. Richard Ellenbogen27,
  22. Kevin Guskiewicz28,
  23. Jon Patricios29,30,
  24. Stanley Herring31
  1. 1 Department of Concussion Care Clinic, University Orthopedics Center, State College, Pennsylvania, USA
  2. 2 University of Missouri-Kansas City, Missouri, USA
  3. 3 Sports Injury Prevention Research Centre, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
  4. 4 The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Australia
  5. 5 Murdoch Children’s Research Institute and Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia
  6. 6 Department of Athletic Medicine, Princeton University, Princeton, USA
  7. 7 UBMD Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University at Buffalo Concussion Management Clinic, Buffalo, New York, USA
  8. 8 Department of Orthopaedics, SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA
  9. 9 The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia
  10. 10 School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
  11. 11 NeuroTrauma Research Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
  12. 12 World Rugby, Dublin, Ireland
  13. 13 Centre Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport Injury Prevention Research, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  14. 14 Cumming School of Medicine, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  15. 15 Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  16. 16 Carleton University Sport Medicine Clinic, Ottawa, Canada
  17. 17 Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
  18. 18 International Paralympic Committee Medical Committee, Ottawa, Canada
  19. 19 Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
  20. 20 Neurology Department, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland
  21. 21 Department of Neurosurgery, Vanderbilt University, Franklin, Tennessee, USA
  22. 22 International Ice Hockey Federation, Zurich, Switzerland
  23. 23 Medical and Scientific Department, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  24. 24 Institute of Sport Exercise and Health, University College Hospital, London, UK
  25. 25 Centre for Urgent and Emergency Care Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK
  26. 26 The Sports Neurology Clinic, Brighton, Michigan, USA
  27. 27 Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  28. 28 Sports Medicine Research Laboratory, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  29. 29 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa
  30. 30 Department of Emergency Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
  31. 31 Departments of Rehabilitation Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, and Neurological Surgery, Seattle, Washington, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ruben J Echemendia, Concussion Care Clinic, University Orthopedics Center, 101 Regent Ct., State College, PA 16801, USA; rechemendia{at}


The Concussion Recognition Tool 5 (CRT5) is the most recent revision of the Pocket Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 that was initially introduced by the Concussion in Sport Group in 2005. The CRT5 is designed to assist non-medically trained individuals to recognise the signs and symptoms of possible sport-related concussion and provides guidance for removing an athlete from play/sport and to seek medical attention. This paper presents the development of the CRT5 and highlights the differences between the CRT5 and prior versions of the instrument.

  • Sports
  • Concussion
  • Brain Injury
  • Assessment

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