Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Association between concussion history and knowledge among italian youth soccer athletes
  1. Naji Filali1,
  2. Tamara Valovich McLeod2,
  3. Cailee Welch Bacon2,
  4. Gianandrea Bellini3,
  5. Paolo Amaddeo4,
  6. Claudio Cornali5
  1. 1Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  2. 2A.T. Still University, Mesa, Arizona, USA
  3. 3Department of Sports Medicine, University of Brescia (UNIBS), Brescia, Italy
  4. 4Department of Sports Medicine, Pope John XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy
  5. 5Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia (UNIBS), Brescia, Italy


Objective To compare concussion-based knowledge between Italian youth soccer athletes who reported a previously diagnosed concussion or concussion-like symptoms and those without prior concussion history.

Design Cross sectional.

Setting Self-reported survey.

Subjects Male soccer athletes (n=766, age=16.9 ± 1.3 years, experience=6.6 ± 3.9 years) from 25 club teams across three professional leagues in Italy.

Intervention The independent variables studied were diagnosed concussion group (prior diagnosed concussion vs. no diagnosed concussion) and self-reported concussion symptom group (experienced concussion-like symptoms vs. no concussion-like symptoms).

Outcome measures The dependent variables were total knowledge scores, measured through accurate endorsement of symptoms and responses to true and false prompts. Independent t-tests were used to determine group differences.

Results 45 (6%) respondents indicated they sustained a physician-diagnosed concussion. The mean number of diagnosed concussions was 0.065±0.3 (range 0–3). 198 (26.2%) respondents indicated they had experienced concussion-like symptoms. The mean frequency of self-reported concussion-like symptoms was 0.54±1.3 (range: 0–15). There were no significant differences in concussion symptom knowledge (P=0.616, 13.9±2.0 vs. 14.1±2.2) or true and false knowledge (P=0.390, 10.7±1.8 vs. 10.4±1.7) between the group with a previously diagnosed concussion compared to the one without. There were also no significant differences in concussion symptom knowledge (P=0.499, 14.2±2.1 vs 14.1±2.2) or true and false knowledge (P=0.256, 10.5±1.6 vs. 10.4±1.8) between the group that had experienced concussion-like symptoms compared to the group that had not.

Conclusions These results suggest the necessity for targeted knowledge-based interventions for youth athletes, especially for those who sustain and report concussions.

Competing interests None.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.