Article Text

Download PDFPDF

German translation and content validation of the OSTRC Questionnaire on overuse injuries and health problems
  1. A Hirschmüller1,
  2. K Steffen2,
  3. K Fassbender1,
  4. B Clarsen2,
  5. R Leonhard3,
  6. L Konstantinidis1,
  7. N P Südkamp1,
  8. E J Kubosch1
  1. 1Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Center for Surgery, University of Freiburg—Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany
  2. 2Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Oslo, Norway
  3. 3Department of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Dr A Hirschmüller, Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical Center—University of Freiburg, Center for Surgery, Hugstetter Str. 55, Freiburg im Breisgau D-79106, Germany; anja.hirschmueller{at}


Objective The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Questionnaire on Health Problems into the German context.

Methods A slightly modified back-translation method was used to translate the questionnaire. Validation was done in 24 high-level Paralympic athletes followed over 20 consecutive weeks.

Results The translated version of the questionnaire showed a very high internal consistency and good test–retest reliability (Cronbach's α 0.92, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.91). Additionally, we observed high acceptance and compliance from our cohort of athletes, whose mean weekly response rate was 91.5%. Overall, 114 training days were lost because of illness or injury within the 20 weeks and, on average, 5 athletes per week (20.8%) reported health problems.

Conclusions This study demonstrates that the translated German version of the OSTRC Questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool with high internal consistency for the medical monitoring of German athletes. The OSTRC-G now offers the opportunity for a continued surveillance of high-level German athletes.

  • Athlete
  • Epidemiology
  • Questionnaire
  • Validation
  • Disabled

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

View Full Text

Statistics from


  • Contributors AH conceived and designed the study with the help of EJK, KS and LK. KF, EJK and AH carried out the data acquisition. KS and BC helped in data processing and in the optimisation of the German version of the questionnaire. AH, RL, EJK and KF undertook the data analyses. All authors contributed to the data interpretation. AH drafted the manuscript with input from all the authors. All authors approved the final manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval University of Freiburg Ethical Committee (approval 522/15).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.