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  1. Jae Seung Chang2,1,
  2. Young Hee Lee3,1,
  3. In Deok Kong2,1
  1. 1Yonsei Institute of Sports Science & Exercise Medicine, Wonju, Korea, South
  2. 2Department of Physiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea, South
  3. 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea, South


    Background Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) that is a transient airway obstruction occurring after strenuous exertion can occur in non-asthmatic athletes as well. However acute effects of different warm-up modalities on EIB in athletes without asthma remain uncertain.

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of different warm-up modalities on improving EIB in non-asthmatic athletes.

    Design Randomized crossover controlled trial. Each participant performed four experimental trials on nonconsecutive days, consisting of exercise challenge test for 6 min (at velocity of 90%HRmax) following either continuous warm-up (CW), high-intensity interval warm-up (HW), modified warm-up (MW) or no warm-up (NW). Pulmonary functions were measured prior to each experimental trial, and repeated before and at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 min after exercise challenge.

    Setting Research laboratory in a university setting.

    Participants Eleven competitive collegiate athletes.

    Interventions CW consisted of 15-min run at a velocity corresponding to 60%VO2max, HW involved 8 repetitions of 30-sec run (45-sec rest between bouts of running) at an intensity equivalent to 90–100%VO2max, and MW was composed with combination of HW (6 repetitions) and CW (5-min).

    Main Outcome Measurements The main spirometric parameters of airway obstruction included forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1.0), forced vital capacity (FVC), and their ratio (FEV1.0/FVC), forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25–75) and peak expiratory flow (PEF).

    Results The mean maximum percent fall in pre- to post-exercise FEV1.0 for all subjects during the EIB screening test was −17.7±6.5%. The mean maximum percent decrease in post-exercise FEV1.0 significantly decreased to −4.0±5.5% and −5.2±3.5% following CW and MW, respectively (all p<0.01). All of three warm-up modalities significantly attenuated the mean percentage fall in FEV1.0 at 5, 10 and 15 min compared to control (all p<0.05).

    Conclusions These data indicate that all of three warm-up modalities have a protective effect against developing EIB in non-asthmatic athletes.

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