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  1. Victor Lopez1,2,3,4,
  2. Richard Ma1,5,
  3. Meryle Weinstein1,6,
  4. Patria Hume7,
  5. Robert Cantu8,9,10,11,12,
  6. Christian Victoria1,13,
  7. Erica Marcano14,
  8. Allen Answorth1,4,15,16,17
  1. 1Rugby Research and Injury Prevention Group, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA
  2. 2Auckland University of Technology, Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, Rugby Codes Interdisciplinary Research Group, Auckland, New Zealand
  3. 3USA Rugby Empire Geographic Union Rugby Football Union, New York, NY, USA
  4. 4Northeast Rugby Academy, USOC-Community Olympic Development Program, New York, NY, USA
  5. 5University of Missouri, Missouri Orthopaedic Institute & Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, Columbia, MO, USA
  6. 6New York University, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development, New York, NY, USA
  7. 7Auckland University of Technology, School of Sport & Recreation, Founder, Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, Founding Member SPRINZ Rugby Codes Interdisciplinary Research Group, Auckland, New Zealand
  8. 8Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
  9. 9Department of Neurosurgery and Sports Medicine, Emerson Hospital, Concord, MA, USA
  10. 10Neurologic Sports Injury Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
  11. 11Sports Legacy Institute, Waltham, MA, USA
  12. 12World Rugby, Independent Concussion Group, Dublin, Ireland
  13. 13New York University, Global Institute of Public Health, New York, NY, USA
  14. 14Professional Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, New York, NY, USA
  15. 15Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA
  16. 16National Basketball Association, New York Knickerbockers, New York, NY, USA
  17. 17USA Basketball, Colorado Springs, CO, USA


    Background There are limited data on Rugby-7s, an emerging sport in the United States (US), which debuted in the 2016 Olympics.

    Objective To report incidence and causes for US Rugby-7s. We hypothesized that match injuries would be frequent and patterns of injuries would be similar in the US population to international cohorts.

    Design Prospective descriptive epidemiology study.

    Setting The study encompassed U19 to elite players in USA Rugby tournaments (2010–2013).

    Participants A total of 13,644 US players (Men=9,768; Women=3,876; age: 13–49 years) were included over 28 tournaments (37 days) of 2,688 matches (Men=1,886; Women=802) in 1,137 sides/teams (Men=814; Women=323).

    Assessment of Risk Factors Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors in Rugby-7s match injuries.

    Main measurement outcome Injury incidence (per 1000 player-hour (ph)) and mechanism captured using the Rugby Injury Survey & Evaluation (RISE) Report methodology. Time-loss injuries were defined as players who did not return to play the day of their injury. Injury severity was defined as days absent before return to training/competition (including post tournament).

    Results Overall incidence of time-loss injuries was 50.6/1000 ph. Time-loss injuries were highest among sub-elite level players (69.5/1000 ph) (P<0.001). Fifty percent of all injuries occurred in 20–25 year olds which was consistent with the age distribution of the participants. The average injury severity was 44 days (CI 37.7–49.4) for the 97% of players with follow-up data. Most tournament match injuries were new acute injuries (95%), occurred during tackling (68%), were ligament sprains (35%), and in the lower extremity (52%). Head/face (22.6%) and upper extremity (24.7%) injuries were also frequent.

    Conclusions Compared to international elite cohorts, the US amateur population had lower overall injury incidence, however, they had a higher frequency of upper extremity and head/face injuries. Injury prevention protocols in the US should focus on tackling techniques, which may reduce incidence of tournament match injuries.

    • Injury

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