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Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices
  1. Kenneth L Quarrie1,
  2. Martin Raftery2,
  3. Josh Blackie3,
  4. Christian J Cook4,
  5. Colin W Fuller5,
  6. Tim J Gabbett6,
  7. Andrew J Gray7,
  8. Nicholas Gill8,
  9. Liam Hennessy9,
  10. Simon Kemp10,
  11. Mike Lambert11,
  12. Rob Nichol3,
  13. Stephen D Mellalieu12,
  14. Julien Piscione13,
  15. Jörg Stadelmann14,
  16. Ross Tucker2,15
  1. 1New Zealand Rugby, Wellington, New Zealand
  2. 2World Rugby, Dublin, Ireland
  3. 3International Rugby Players Association, Auckland, New Zealand
  4. 4School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK
  5. 5Colin Fuller Consultancy Ltd, Sutton Bonington, UK
  6. 6School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia and School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, Australia
  7. 7Athletic Data Innovations, Miranda, Australia
  8. 8Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand
  9. 9Centre for Coaching and Wellness Research Setanta College, Thurles, Tipperary, Ireland
  10. 10Rugby Football Union, London, UK
  11. 11Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Newlands, South Africa
  12. 12Cardiff School of Sport, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK
  13. 13Research Department, French Rugby Union Federation, Marcoussis, France
  14. 14Athlete Monitoring Department, Prozone Sports, London, UK
  15. 16Department of Medicine, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kenneth L Quarrie, Senior Scientist, New Zealand Rugby, 100 Molesworth Street, Wellington 6140, New Zealand; ken.quarrie{at}


Background The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby.

Objective To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health.

Findings The group defined ‘load’ as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013–2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5–11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players’ personal information is adequately protected.

Conclusions Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the ‘best players’ on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training sessions. If load is a major risk factor for injury, then managing training loads should be an important element in enabling players to perform in a fit state as often as possible.

  • Load
  • Overtraining and burnout
  • Rugby
  • Elite performance
  • Injury

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