Background No simple clinical measure exits to evaluate groin pain and its severity in athletes. The aim was to investigate the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a five-second hip-adduction squeeze test for football players designed to assess sports-related hip and groin function, pain and severity.
Methods Construct validity was assessed in 667 subelite male football players with a mean age (±SD) of 24±4 in the beginning of the season. Responsiveness and reliability were evaluated during the season in 52 and 10 players, respectively. Players answered the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) and performed the Copenhagen five-second squeeze assessed on a Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NRS) ranging from 0 to 10.
Results As hypothesised higher pain scores during the Copenhagen five-second squeeze correlated significantly (Spearman's rho=−0.61, p<0.01) with a lesser HAGOS (Sport) Score. The change scores in the Copenhagen five-second squeeze also correlated significantly (Spearman's rho=−0.51, p<0.01), with HAGOS (Sport) change scores in the responsiveness analysis, and test–retest reliability (concordance correlation coefficient) was 0.90. Moreover, significant (p<0.01) between-group differences existed for HAGOS (Sport) Scores in players reporting groin pain intensity at one of the 3 different pain levels: NRS (0–2), NRS (3–5) and NRS (6–10). The NRS (6–10) group had the lowest median (IQR) HAGOS (Sport) Score of 47 (31–61).
Conclusions The Copenhagen five-second squeeze is a valid indicator of sports-related hip and groin function in football players. Players reporting groin pain intensity as 6 of 10 or more in the Copenhagen five-second squeeze experience substantially impaired sports-related hip and groin function.
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Contributors KT contributed to the original idea of this study and the design and drafted the manuscript. Analysis of the data was performed by KT, and all authors revised and consented to the design, discussion and conclusion sections in the paper concerning the data. All authors commented and contributed with important intellectual content and final approval of the version to be published.
Funding MPN was funded by the Lundbeck Foundation on a pregraduate scholarship during the time he was involved in the current study.
Competing interests None declared.
Ethics approval The Danish National Committee on Health Research Ethics (H-2-2010-127) approved the project.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement Statistical analyses and data sets are available from the corresponding author.