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Time out: ethical reflections on medical disqualification of athletes in the context of mandated pre-participation cardiac screening

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  • MP and PB contributed equally.

  • Handling editor Karim M Khan

  • Contributors EFM wrote the analysis in collaboration with MP, GF, SS and PB. MP, GF and SS were involved in pre-participation cardiac screening organised by the charity Cardiac Risk in the Young (CRY). MP and PB contributed equally as senior authors.

  • Funding EFM was funded by a European Commission Bioethics Fellowship. MP, GF and SS are funded by research grants from the charitable organisation Cardiac Risk in the Young (CRY), which supports pre-participation screening in young athletes.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.