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Head accelerations across collegiate, high school and youth female and male soccer players
  1. Jaclyn B Caccese
  1. Correspondence to Jaclyn B Caccese, Department of Kinesiology, Temple University, 1800 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, PA 19121, USA; jaclyn.caccese{at}

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What did I do?

I investigated (1) head acceleration during purposeful football heading across age and sex and (2) determinants of head impact severity.

Why did I do it?

Nearly 4% of the world’s population plays football, including over 26 million women. Although there are unrefuted positive health effects of playing football,1 chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been identified in three football players,2 including British player, Jeffrey Astle, causing concern about the long-term effects of repetitive heading. To prevent or mitigate the effects of repetitive football heading, I believe that we must understand the biomechanics and identify strategies for reducing head impact severity.3 Currently, the little information on the biomechanical response to purposeful heading is limited to collegiate male football players, but these data may not be transferable to women and children, who have lower head mass, decreased neck muscle …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.