Article Text

Infographics and digital resources: an international consensus on golf and health
  1. Andrew D Murray1,2,
  2. Christian J Barton3,4,
  3. Daryll Archibald5,6,
  4. Danny Glover7,
  5. Iain Robert Murray8,9,
  6. Kevin Barker10,
  7. Roger A Hawkes11,12
  1. 1 Sport and Exercise, Physical Activity for Health Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  2. 2 European Tour Golf, Edinburgh, UK
  3. 3 Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Centre, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
  4. 4 Complete Sports Care, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia
  5. 5 School of Psychology and Public health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  6. 6 Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  7. 7 Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber, Leeds, UK
  8. 8 Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  9. 9 Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
  10. 10 Golf Development, The R&A, St Andrews, UK
  11. 11 Golf and Health, World Golf Foundation, St Augustine, Florida, USA
  12. 12 European Disabled Golf Association, Birmingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Andrew D Murray, Sport and Exercise, Physical Activity for Health Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH1 3DG, UK; docandrewmurray{at}

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New knowledge from research findings rarely produces rapid efficient changes in practice.1 Barton and Merolli2 proposed a model which may help improve knowledge translation via the addition of two novel contemporary steps: multimedia creation and subsequent dissemination (see figure 1).

Figure 1

Visual representation of a process to improve knowledge translation based on Barton and Merolli’s model.2

Following this model, we recently produced digital/multimedia resources to help communicate and disseminate the International Consensus on Golf and Health.3

Research completion and publication

A systematic literature review and modified Delphi process underpinned the International Consensus on Golf and Health and this was published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine in 2018.3 The Consensus is intended to support (1) golfers and potential golfers; (2) golf facilities and the golf industry; and (3) policy makers to make evidence-informed decisions that can maximise the health benefits of golf and minimise the health risks associated with this sport.

Multimedia creation

Articles containing visual information are read three times more often than those without.4 Humans remember up to 6.5 times more through learning from visual imagery than by reading text alone.5 This makes sense. How many text-only adverts do you see? What is your reaction to a wordy PowerPoint presentation? We produced bite-sized resources (infographics, podcasts and video content) with the key messages stemming from the consensus statement.3

Infographics have been made to support end-user groups: (1) golf players/potential players; (2) the golf industry/facilities; and (ii) policy makers external to golf. These visual resources highlight the specific actions that can lead to the biggest gains in health and well-being related to golf (see figures 2–4). They complement published infographics regarding golf and health6 and maximising golf performance.7

Figure 2

Infographic. Tips to maximise health benefits of golf for golfers.

Figure 3

Infographic. What can the golf industry/golf facilities do to maximise the health benefits of golf?.

Figure 4

Infographic. Golf and Health: key actions for policy/decision makers.

Video content was designed to have broad interest. We featured leading players who had won multiple major championships as well as researchers, clinicians and public health ministers. These are available at A podcast with more detail discussing the International Consensus on Golf on Health is available at It offers researchers and others interested a ‘deeper dive’ into the methods and findings.

Dissemination and communication

Infographics and other multimedia/digital resources facilitate the sharing of key messages and engagement with research. They are not a substitute for reading the detailed peer reviewed article. Strategies8 for sharing content can include:

  • social media platforms (eg, via Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and blogs)

  • email, plus or minus press release distribution

  • direct communications including discussions, meetings and presentations targeting relevant stakeholders.

We used these strategies to share our previous scoping review on golf and health.9 This approach to sharing new research may have contributed to this manuscript being the subject of over 90 press articles, a supportive Early Day Motion in the UK parliament and achieving an Altmetric score >1300.


Barton and Merolli’s model offer researchers strategies to increase the visibility of their work. After conducting an International Consensus on Golf and Health and publishing it in the BJSM, we shared bite-sized multimedia resources to assist the dissemination and communication of the consensus. The BJSM is well positioned to support researchers who wish to produce similar digital resources. Options include, but are not limited to, co-producing podcast and blog content, and sharing purpose-created digital resources via popular Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and YouTube platforms.


The authors thank Nanette Mutrie, Paul Kelly, Liz Grant for academic input and Jorge Rodriguez, Aston Ward, Ed Hodge and Steffan Griffin for their help in creating the infographics, video and podcast content.


Supplementary materials


  • Contributors ADM, CJB, IRM, DA and RAH identified the framework and wrote the text. ADM, DG and KB produced and refined the digital assets. All authors commented on drafts and contributed to the development of the final manuscript and assets.

  • Funding Work for this study was supported by an unrestricted grant from the World Golf Foundation.

  • Competing interests ADM is supported by an unrestricted grant from the World Golf Foundation. RAH and ADM receive fees from the European Tour Golf for clinical work. KB is the director of Golf Development at the R&A.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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