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Lower limb biomechanics in femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  1. Matthew G King1,
  2. Peter R Lawrenson2,
  3. Adam I Semciw1,2,
  4. Kane J Middleton1,
  5. Kay M Crossley1
  1. 1 La Trobe Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Centre, School of Allied Health, College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2 School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Professor Kay M Crossley, La Trobe Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Centre, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia; k.crossley{at}


Objective (1) Identify differences in hip and pelvic biomechanics in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) compared with controls during everyday activities (eg, walking, squatting); and (2) evaluate the effects of interventions on hip and pelvic biomechanics during everyday activities.

Design Systematic review.

Data sources Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus and SPORTDiscus until February 2017.

Methods Primary aim: studies that investigated hip or pelvic kinematics and/or joint torques of everyday activities in patients with FAIS compared with the asymptomatic contralateral limb or a control group. Secondary aim: studies that evaluated effects of conservative or surgical interventions on patients with FAIS using pre-post or controlled clinical trial designs. Biomechanical data must have been collected using three-dimensional motion capture devices. Reporting quality was assessed using the Epidemiological Appraisal Instrument and data were pooled (standardised mean difference (SMD), 95% CI) where populations and primary outcomes were similar.

Results Fourteen studies were included (11 cross-sectional and three pre/post intervention), varying between low and moderate reporting quality. Patients with FAIS walked with a lower: peak hip extension angle (SMD −0.40, 95% CI −0.71 to −0.09), peak internal rotation angle (−0.67, 95% CI −1.19 to −0.16) and external rotation joint torque (−0.71, 95% CI −1.07 to −0.35), and squatted to a lesser depth with no difference in hip flexion range. Pre/post intervention data were limited in number and quality, and to surgical cohorts.

Conclusion This review suggests that patients with FAIS may demonstrate hip biomechanical impairments during walking and squatting, with minimal literature available to comment on other tasks.

Clinical relevance The information presented in the review provides insight into the biomechanical differences associated with FAIS; however, the between-group differences were small to moderate. This information may aid in the development of management strategies for people with the condition.

PROSPEROregistration number CRD42016038677.

  • hip
  • gait analysis
  • walking
  • biomechanics
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  • Contributors All authors contributed to the planning, collection, analysis and writing of this manuscript.

  • Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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