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Keeping athletes on the field: preventing primary and secondary ACL injuries
  1. Amelia J.H. Arundale
  1. Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Amelia J.H. Arundale, Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711, USA; arundale{at}

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What did I do?

I aimed to (1) examine the changes in biomechanics and injury incidence with utilisation of the 11+ prevention programme over two soccer seasons in collegiate women, (2) establish the incidence of lower extremity injuries and career duration after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return Major League Soccer (MLS) and (3) quantify the effects of a secondary injury prevention programme on function, return to sport, and second ACL injury incidence in athletes after ACLR.

Why did I do it?

Due to the high incidence of ACL injuries in cutting, pivoting and jumping sports, it would change athletes’ lives if it were possible to prevent a first or a second ACL injury.1 Primary and secondary ACL injury prevention programmes have been developed but require outcomes testing to determine their efficacy and further improve their impact.

How did I do it?

Aim 1

Two collegiate women’s soccer teams performed the 11+ prevention programme2 for two seasons, while a control team performed their normal …

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  • Contributors Lynn Snyder-Mackler advised this dissertation, alongside the dissertation committee of Karin Gravere-Silbernagel, Daniel White, and Stefano Della Villa. Holly Silvers-Granelli, Ryan Zarzycki, Adam Marmon and Celeste Dix all helped with the FIFA11+ study in aspects of data collection, processing, analysis and manuscript editing. Ryan Zarzycki, Jacob Capin and Angela Smith all helped with the ACL-SPORTS study in aspects of data collection, processing and manuscript editing.

  • Funding National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (grant number R44 HD068054) and National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (grant number R01 AR048212). Support was also provided by a Legacy Grant from the Sports Section of the American Physical Therapy Association and a Promotion of Doctoral Studies I Scholarship from the Foundation for Physical Therapy.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval University of Delaware Internal Review Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.