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Infographic. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on pain management in athletes: non-pharmacological strategies
  1. Brian Hainline1,
  2. Wayne Derman2,3,
  3. Alan Vernec4,
  4. Richard Budgett5,
  5. Masataka Deie6,
  6. Jiri Dvorak7,8,
  7. Christopher A Harle9,
  8. Stanley Herring10,
  9. Michael McNamee11,
  10. Willem Meeuwisse12,
  11. G Lorimer Moseley13,
  12. Bade Omololu14,
  13. John Orchard15,
  14. Andrew Pipe16,
  15. Babette M Pluim16,17,
  16. Johan Raeder18,
  17. David Siebert19,
  18. Mike Stewart20,
  19. Mark Campbell Stuart21,
  20. Judith Turner22,
  21. Mark Ware23,
  22. David Zideman24,
  23. Lars Engebretsen25
  1. 1 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
  2. 2 Instiute of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
  3. 3 International Olympic Committee Research Centre, Cape Town, South Africa
  4. 4 WADA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  5. 5 International Olympic Committee, Lausanne, Switzerland
  6. 6 Orthopedic Surgery, Aichi Ika Daigaku, Aichi-gun, Aichi, Japan
  7. 7 Swiss Concussion Center, Zurich, Switzerland
  8. 8 Spine Unit, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland
  9. 9 Health Policy and Management, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
  10. 10 Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  11. 11 College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
  12. 12 Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  13. 13 University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  14. 14 Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ibadan College of Medicine, Ibadan, Western Nigeria, Nigeria
  15. 15 School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  16. 16 Sports Medicine, Royal Netherlands Lawn Tennis Association, Amersfoort, The Netherlands
  17. 17 Home, Ede, The Netherlands
  18. 18 Anaesthesiology, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway
  19. 19 Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  20. 20 Physical Therapy, East Kent Hospitals University, Canterbury, UK
  21. 21 BMJ Learning, BMJ Group, London, UK
  22. 22 Psychology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
  23. 23 Pain Management, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  24. 24 International Olympic Committee Medical and Scientific Games Group, Lausanne, Switzerland
  25. 25 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  1. Correspondence to Dr Brian Hainline, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; bhainline{at}ncaa.org

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Pain and injury are not synonymous. Pain can occur without sport injury, and sport injury may not necessarily manifest with pain. It is …

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