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Infographic. International Ankle Consortium Rehabilitation-Oriented Assessment
  1. Eamonn Delahunt1,2,
  2. Chris M Bleakley3,
  3. Daniela S Bossard1,2,
  4. Brian M Caulfield1,4,
  5. Carrie L Docherty5,
  6. Cailbhe Doherty4,
  7. Francois Fourchet6,
  8. Daniel T P Fong7,
  9. Jay Hertel8,
  10. Claire E Hiller9,
  11. Thomas W Kaminski10,
  12. Patrick O McKeon11,
  13. Kathryn M Refshauge9,
  14. Alexandria Remus4,
  15. Evert A Verhagen12,
  16. Bill T Vicenzino13,
  17. Erik A Wikstrom14,
  18. Phillip A Gribble15
  1. 1 School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  2. 2 Institute for Sport & Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  3. 3 Department of Physical Therapy, High Point University, High Point, North Carolina, USA
  4. 4 Insight Centre for Data Analytics, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  5. 5 School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
  6. 6 Motion Analysis Laboratory, Hôpital De La Tour, Meyrin, Geneva, Switzerland
  7. 7 National Centre for Sport & Exercise Medicine, School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
  8. 8 Department of Kinesiology, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
  9. 9 Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiotherapy, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  10. 10 Department of Kinesiology & Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
  11. 11 Department of Exercise & Sport Sciences, School of Health Sciences & Human Performance, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York, USA
  12. 12 Amsterdam Collaboration on Health and Safety in Sports & Department of Public & Occupational Health, Amsterdam Movement Science, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  13. 13 School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  14. 14 Department of Exercise & Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  15. 15 Division of Athletic Training, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
  1. Correspondence to Professor Eamonn Delahunt, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland; eamonn.delahunt{at}

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Epidemiology of lateral ankle sprains

Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most prevalent lower limb musculoskeletal injuries incurred by individuals who participate in recreational physical activities and sports.1 2

Propensity for the development of chronic ankle instability

The misconception that acute lateral ankle sprains are innocuous injuries that require little treatment is common across patients and healthcare professionals; indeed, up to 50% of individuals who incur an acute lateral ankle sprain do not seek formal healthcare management for their injury.3 All too often colloquial terms such as a ‘rolled’ ankle or ‘twisted’ ankle are used to describe an acute lateral ankle sprain injury. In reality, acute lateral ankle sprains are rarely ever a ‘simple’ injury. …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

  • Author note This infographic is based upon the following article: Delahunt E, Bleakley CM, Bossard DS, Caulfield BM, Docherty CL, Doherty C, Fourchet F, Fong DT, Hertel J, Hiller CE, Kaminski TW, McKeon PO, Refshauge KM, Remus A, Verhagen EA, Vicenzino BT, Wikstrom EA, Gribble PA. Clinical assessment of acute lateral ankle sprain injuries (ROAST): 2019 consensus statement and recommendations of the International Ankle Consortium. Br J Sports Med. 2018 Jun 9. pii: bjsports-2017-098885. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098885. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:29886432.

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was published online first. The title has been slightly edited.