Objectives To describe ocular injuries caused by badminton and to explore the implications for future prevention strategies.
Methods We enrolled 85 patients with ocular trauma caused by badminton. Information collected from patients included type of game, instigator, instrument of injury and lessons in badminton from a professional, and ocular trauma information such as type of injury, treatment and final outcomes.
Results The 85 patients (52 men, 33 women) were aged 15–65 years with an average age of 42.9 (±10.7) years. In 60 cases the player was hit by a shuttlecock and in 25 the player was hit by a racquet. 73 cases occurred in doubles matches and 10 in singles matches. In 31 cases the trauma was caused by an opponent and in 52 cases by a partner; 2 cases involved bystanders, not players. About 70% (43/61) of the injured and 82% (40/49) of the instigators had not received badminton lessons from a professional. 80 injuries were non-penetrating and 5 were penetrating. There were 58 cases with hyphaema, 36 with secondary glaucoma, 23 with lens subluxation and 2 with retinal detachment. Surgery comprised phacoemulsification or lensectomy and vitrectomy in 16 cases, silicone oil tamponade in 2 cases, trabeculectomy in 3 cases and direct cyclopexy in 5 cases.
Conclusion The vast majority of the badminton related eye injuries occurred among doubles players and were instigated by the injured person’s partner. Non-penetrating injury was more frequent; penetrating injury was usually more serious. We recommend that badminton players use protective eyewear and receive safety education and professional coaching/instruction on techniques to protect against serious eye injuries.
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Contributors All authors participated in the conception and design of the study, interpretation of the results and drafting of the manuscript. YL and JG were directors of the study. JY and JG were responsible for the questionnaire design. JY, YC, JM, MZ, CK and XW contributed to collection and recording of the data. JY and YL wrote the first draft of the manuscript and all authors have contributed to review, drafting and approval of the final manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Ethics approval The project involved a retrospective analysis of existing de-identified data and was thus granted exemption from the requirement of consent or proxy consent by the hospital ethics committee. The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board at Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement Data will be shared upon request under the BJSM policy.
Patient consent for publication Obtained.