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The high prevalence of caffeine intake by athletes has prompted researchers to explore its effects on sport and exercise performance, with a particular focus on optimal guidelines for caffeine supplementation.1 The 2018 International Olympic Committee consensus statement on dietary supplements has identified caffeine as one of the few supplements that have good evidence of benefits for performance.2 A recent umbrella review examined caffeine’s effect on exercise performance and highlighted that caffeine ingestion has a small—but significant—ergogenic effect on muscle strength and anaerobic power, along with moderate effect sizes for aerobic and muscle endurance.3 These data explain why caffeine is similarly consumed in sports with very different physiological demands4 and support the notion that caffeine is ergogenic across a broad range of exercise tasks. …
Contributors All authors participated in the conception of the infographic. JGB-M, DBdS and MA designed the infographic. JGB-M and JDC wrote the manuscript. All authors revised and approved the final versions of both the figure and the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.