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Infographic. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of common lower extremity muscle injuries in sport—grading the evidence: a statement paper commissioned by the Danish Society of Sports Physical Therapy (DSSF)
  1. Lasse Ishøi1,
  2. Kasper Krommes1,
  3. Rasmus Skov Husted2,
  4. Carsten B Juhl3,
  5. Adam Virgile4,
  6. Kristian Thorborg1,2
  1. 1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital, Sports Orthopedic Research Center - Copenhagen (SORC-C), Hvidovre, Denmark
  2. 2 Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Physical Therapy, Copenhagen University Hospital, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Research – Copenhagen (PMR-C), Hvidovre, Denmark
  3. 3 Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark
  4. 4 College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA
  1. Correspondence to Lasse Ishøi, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager-Hvidovre, Sports Orthopedic Research Center - Copenhagen (SORC-C), Hvidovre 2650, Denmark; lasse.ishoei{at}

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Muscle strain injuries are a significant problem in multidirectional sports, such as football, with most injuries located in the hamstrings, adductors, rectus femoris/quadriceps and calf muscles.1 These injuries may not only cause absence from football for the individual player, but also negatively affect overall team performance.2 The incidence of muscle strain injury has remained constant during the last decades in football3 and Australian rules football4 with slightly increased incidence for hamstring5 and calf muscle strain injuries,4 which highlights the ongoing challenge of muscle strain injuries in sport.

Reduction of the burden of muscle strain injuries in sports is most likely achieved by adoption of evidence-based prevention programmes. Several prevention programmes and their associated effect on muscle injuries have been published, including the FIFA 11+ warm up programme for overall injury prevention,6 the …

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  • Twitter @LasseIshoei, @krommes, @KThorborg

  • Contributors LI, KK, RSH, CBJ and KT wrote the original paper of which this text and infographics are based upon. AV designed the infographics contained in this paper.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.