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International consensus statement: methods for recording and reporting of epidemiological data on injuries and illnesses in golf
  1. Andrew Murray1,2,
  2. Astrid Junge3,4,
  3. Patrick Gordon Robinson5,6,
  4. Mario Bizzini7,8,
  5. Andre Bossert9,
  6. Benjamin Clarsen10,11,
  7. Daniel Coughlan6,12,
  8. Corey Cunningham13,14,
  9. Tomas Drobny15,16,
  10. Francois Gazzano17,
  11. Lance Gill18,19,
  12. Roger Hawkes1,20,
  13. Tom Hospel21,22,
  14. Robert Neal23,
  15. Jonathan Lavelle24,25,
  16. Antony Scanlon26,
  17. Patrick Schamash27,28,
  18. Bruce Thomas29,
  19. Mike Voight19,30,
  20. Mark Wotherspoon31,32,
  21. Jiri Dvorak15,33
  1. 1 Medical Commission, International Golf Federation, Lausanne, Switzerland
  2. 2 Medical, European Tour Golf, Virginia Water, UK
  3. 3 Prevention, Health Promotion and Sports Medicine, MSH Medical School Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  4. 4 Swiss Concussion Centre, Schulthess Klinik, Zurich, Switzerland
  5. 5 Trauma & Orthopaedics, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  6. 6 European Tour Performance Institute, European Tour Golf, Virginia Water, UK
  7. 7 Research, Schulthess Clinic Human Performance Lab, Zurich, ZH, Switzerland
  8. 8 Swiss Sport Physiotherapy Association, Leukerbad, VS, Switzerland
  9. 9 South Africa/Switzerland, Professional Golfer, Touring, South Africa
  10. 10 Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Oslo, Norway
  11. 11 Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Health Promotion and Development, Bergen, Norway
  12. 12 School of Sport, Rehabilitation and Exercise Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, Essex, UK
  13. 13 Medical, New South Wales Institute of Sport, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  14. 14 Medical, Professional Golf Association Tour of Australasia, Sydney, Melbourne, Australia
  15. 15 Swiss Golf Medical Center, Zurich, ZH, Switzerland
  16. 16 Department of Lower Extremity Orthopaedics, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland
  17. 17 FITSTATS Technologies, Inc, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada
  18. 18 LG Performance, Oceanside, New Jersey, USA
  19. 19 Titleist Performance Institute, Oceanside, California, USA
  20. 20 Sports Medicine, European Disabled Golf Association, Lichfield, UK
  21. 21 Medical, Professional Golf Association Tour, Ponta Vedra Beach, Florida, USA
  22. 22 Medical, United States Golf Association, Far Hills, New Jersey, USA
  23. 23 Golf Biodynamics, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  24. 24 Medical, The R&A, St Andrews, UK
  25. 25 Orthopaedics, Fortius Clinic, London, UK
  26. 26 International Golf Federation, Lausanne, Switzerland
  27. 27 Medical Trauma and Rehabilitation Centre, Meribel, France
  28. 28 Medical, International Golf Federation, Lausanne, Switzerland
  29. 29 Medical, Ladies Professional Golf Association, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA
  30. 30 School of Physical Therapy, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
  31. 31 Sports Medicine and Science, Ladies European Tour, London, UK
  32. 32 Sports and Exercise Medicine, North Hampshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK
  33. 33 Spine Unit, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Andrew Murray, Medical Commission, International Golf Federation, Lausanne EH1 3DG, Switzerland; docandrewmurray{at}


Epidemiological studies of injury in elite and recreational golfers have lacked consistency in methods and definitions employed and this limits comparison of results across studies. In their sports-generic statement, the Consensus Group recruited by the IOC (2020) called for sport-specific consensus statements. On invitation by International Golf Federation, a group of international experts in sport and exercise medicine, golf research and sports injury/illness epidemiology was selected to prepare a golf-specific consensus statement. Methodological stages included literature review and initial drafting, online feedback from the consensus group, revision and second draft, virtual consensus meetings and completion of final version. This consensus statement provides golf-specific recommendations for data collection and research reporting including: (i) injury and illness definitions, and characteristics with golf-specific examples, (ii) definitions of golf-specific exposure measurements and recommendations for the calculation of prevalence and incidence, (iii) injury, illness and exposure report forms for medical staff and for golfers, and (iv) a baseline questionnaire. Implementation of the consensus methodology will enable comparison among golf studies and with other sports. It facilitates analysis of causative factors for injuries and illness in golf, and can also be used to evaluate the effects of prevention programmes to support the health of golfers.

  • golf
  • injury
  • illness
  • injury prevention
  • consensus statement

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  • Twitter @docandrewmurray, @benclarsen, @DocHawkes, @ProfJiriDvorak

  • Contributors This work was commissioned by the International Golf Federation. AM, AJ, PGR and JD formed a working group and reviewed the literature. Further groups involving all authors were formed to look at aspects of the consensus. The working group produced a first draft. All authors reviewed and gave feedback upon each iteration of the consensus, and reviewed the final manuscript and appendices.

  • Funding This study was funded by International Golf Federation.

  • Competing interests Author affiliations are provided in Appendix 1. Francois Gazzano is Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and founder of FITSTATS. Robert Neal is the CEO and founder of Golf BioDynamics.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer-reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available upon request.

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